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Free Mason

Ulster-Scots Dissenter American


preceded by

succeeded by

married to

  • life-partnership with Senator William King from Alabama. Sen. King was also the approved VPOTUS under POTUS-14 Bleeding Kansas 1804-1869 Franklin Pierce


James Buchanan painted by Michael Brady, c. 1850


"I acknowledge no master but the law."

POTUS-15 [1857-1861]

USA minister to Britain with POTUS-14 Bleeding Kansas 1804-1869 Franklin Pierce [1853-1856]

USA Sec'y State with POTUS-11 Manifest Destiny 1795-1849 James Knox Polk [1845-1849]

US Senator from Pennsylvania 1834-1845]

USA minister to Russia with POTUS-07 Indian Removal 1767-1845 Andrew Jackson [1832-1833]

US Congressmember from Pennsylvania [1821-1831]

James Buchanan

a.k.a. "Old Buck"

a.k.a. "Ten Cent Jimmy"

a.k.a. James Gobblar Buchanan

Earth-birth Saturday-23-Apr-1791

dematerialization 01-Jun-1868 [age 77]


POTUS-15 = 1857 until 1861

James Buchanan


birth data from

tentatively rectified by BP Lama Jyotishavidya

charts + graphs + tables = produced by Shri Jyoti Star * adapted by BP Lama

Rising Nakshatra

Masculine Nativity


Yoni * Bhagadaivata * Prakphalguni * Arjuni

BPL commentary

For Purvaphalguni * Yoni * births of a masculine valence, the condition of sweetly musical, artistic, harmony-seeking, negotiating, balancing, arranging, designing, matching, pairing, sensually pleasuring akarshana-karaka Bright Beautiful Bhrigu may considerably affect the outcome.

Due to the definitive influence of kalatra-karaka Shukra, gentlemen born into the realms of Bharani-Yamya, Pūrvaphalgunī-Yonī, or Pūrvāṣāḍhā may find that their worldview is greatly shaped by the character of the feminine companions.

For those born into the Shukra-ruled paradigm of Vutavabana, feminine figures such as sisters, aunts, and wives, along with partnerships, contracts, bargains, sensual pleasures, lovers, artistic beauty, luxurious scents, treasuries, financial arrangements, and music, may be especially influential.

Instructional guidance provided by emissaries from the civilizations of Zosma. Their purpose is to dramatize, glamorize, and politicize the grand theatrical values of creative life.

Diplomatic charm

Shukra-ruled Purvaphalguni gentlemen are often found in the sparkling bright worlds of politics, romance, entertainment, speculative finance, and spectator sports. Yoni-born chaps often display a thick mane of leonine hair and a charming sense of humor.

They are happiest when enjoying a choreographed sport, playing music, dancing with agility and grace, or performing a richly costumed dramatic role for an appreciative audience, Delighted by spectacle and applause, they glitter and smile at parties, political campaigns, gambling and games..

Depending upon the placements of dhanakaraka Shukra and dhana=pati Budha, the Purvarjuni-born may also excel in financial showmanship, bargaining toward a political or commercial agreement, and the high drama of romantic relationships.

Like all Shukra-governed births, Bhagadaivata-born must take care to avoid the misuse of drugs and alcohol. Political success depends upon the charisma of lagnesha Surya. Financial success depends upon the dual-dhanakaraka Shukra and Budha.

Themes of political celebrity, lavish musical entertainments, arts and fashion, and financial agreements may contextualize Pubba's terrestrial experience. Applies also to Chandra-Purvaphalguni.

QUOTATION from Shil-Ponde. [1939] . Hindu Astrology Joytisha-Shastra.p 83

"A physical rather than a mental type.

  • A healthy constitution

  • not given to worry or anxiety regarding the problems of living.

He must guard against impulsiveness

since he is apt to act without sufficient thought

  • and as a result he makes many mistakes

  • which are difficult to rectify

  • and which may be disastrous.

He is very active physically and will be proficient at various sports

  • reveling in the joy of mere action,

  • even purposeless action.

These people seem never to rest and are constantly in motion.

  • As soon as they have finished one thing they start on another,

  • frequently doing several things at a time."


Biographical Details matched to the Vimshottari Dasha Calendar

Shukra Mahadasha * age birth until age 4.5

23-Apr-1791 Earth-birth in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, USA * Shukra-Shani bhukti * Shani activates 7-career, advising, diplomacy, relationships

Surya Mahadasha * age 4.5 until age 10.5

Chandra Mahadasha * age 10.5 until age 20.5

19-Sep-1809 [JB age 18] following dismissal for poor behavior and reinstatement arranged by his father, JB earned a diploma from Dickinson College * Chandra-Shukra bhukti * Shukra karmesha

Mangala Mahadasha * age 20.5 until age 27.5

1812 [JB age 21] "passed the bar" = admitted to practice Law * Mangala-Rahu bhukti

1814 [JB age 23] fought as a private against British invasion of Baltimore * Mangala-Shani bhukti * Shani activates 6-war

Rahu Mahadasha * age 27.5 until age 45.5

1820 [JB age 29] elected to USA Congress from Pennsylvania, winning five successive elections * Rahu-Rahu svabhukti

11-Jun-1821 [JB age 30] grieved decease of father * Rahu-Rahu svabhukti

Jan-1832 appointed Minister to Russia by POTUS-07 Indian Removal 1767-1845 Andrew Jackson * Rahu-Shukra bhukti * Shukra-10 diplomacy

24-May-1833 [JB age 42] grieved the decease of mother * Rahu-Shukra bhukti * Shukra activates 12th-from-4th

14-Oct-1834 [JB age 43] elected USA Senator from Pennsylvania [served until -Mar-1845 ] Rahu-Chandra bhukti * Chandra-5 elections

Guru Mahadasha * age 45 until age 61

Mar-1845 [JB age 54] appointed USA Secy State by POTUS-11 Manifest Destiny 1795-1849 James Knox Polk * Guru-Shukra bhukti * Shukra-10 diplomacy

Shani mahadasha * age 61 until decease age 77

18-Apr-1853 [JB age 62] grieved the decease of lifepartner William Rufus King * Shani-Shani svabhukti * Shani-8 activates 7 ++ Shani activates 12th-from-7th

Aug-1853 [JB age 62] appointed Minister to Great Britain by POTUS-14 Bleeding Kansas 1804-1869 Franklin Pierce * Shani-Shani svabhukti * Shani activates 7-diplomacy

04-Nov-1856 [JB age 65] elected POTUS-15 * Shani-Budha bhukti * Budha activates 10th navamsha

20-Dec-1860 [JB age 66] South Carolina secedes from the Union * Shani-Shukra bhukti * Shukra activates 11 = 8th-from-4th transformative upheaval of the nation

03-Mar-1861 [JB age 70] end of POTUS-15 * Shani-Shukra bhukti * Shukra activates 6th-from-10th * career ends in conflict and disrepute

01-Jun-1868 [JB age 77] dematerialization via pneumonia * Shani-Rahu bhukti

Distinctive features of the Nativity


pitri-karaka [father] jyoti-karaka [light]


[karako bhavo nashto for father, patrons, indoctrinators]

[energizing lagnesha for Simha indriya-lagna]






  • [Surya-Mesha] Suryaya * the supreme one * brightly charismatic confidence of Center-stage Surya radiates through the vital competitive dominating rashi of Mangala
  • [Surya in bhava-9] * icon of sacred teachings * intelligent patronage * geo-politics * bright preaching * focus on beliefs * philosophical entitlements * self-righteous dad * sanctimonious pontificator * eye on humanistic worldview * confident ideologue * sparkling center of global doctrine * father may be a politician-philosopher-preacher-professor
  • [Surya-yuti-Kuja] confidently progressive * bright warrior * moves in alignment with the spiritual rays of the Sun * creatively intelligent brother-figures * self-reflexive political pursuits * champion of brilliant ideals * competitive father-figure * entitled to conquer * focused on winning * radiantly pioneering
  • [Surya-yuti-Budha] confidently conversational * bright messenger * entitled to discuss * creatively intelligent sibling-cohort * discursive father-figure * gestures conduct the spiritual rays of the Sun * radiantly descriptive * articulate in drama * skillful game-player * self-confident announcements * talks about ideals * narrative of power-politics * recites love poems * describes divine romance
  • [Surya-yuti-Ketu] confidently detached * bright observer * entitled to surrender * apathetic toward the spiritual rays of the Sun * creatively intelligent abandonment * disregards patriarchal power * politically disinterested * wandering father-figure * radiantly unconcerned


Buchanan's mother and father both hailed from immigrant Ulster Scots roots.

the father of POTUS-15 Oregon Treaty 1791-1868 James Buchanan was a vendor of European luxury goods. Like most men of his era, Dad also owned a working farm, but he likely outsourced its operation while he engaged in business.

Dad = a merchant-farmer born in Northern Ireland who settled in Pennsylvania. Dad eventually achieved economic success via mercantile trade and real-estate investments. Surya in bhava-9 [karako bhavo nashto] usually suggests a somewhat overbearing or preachy father, exaggerated by mega-confident Surya-Mesha [uchcha] .

Among other advantages, dad ensured that JB obtained a college diploma . Surya-yuti-Kuja shows dad's involvement with JB's education = Kuja activates 4-schooling.

The record indicates that JB was nearly expelled from Dickinson College for inappropriate behavior. Yet dad arranged a reinstatement, and an 18-year-old JB received a diploma in 1809. [Surya-yuti-Budha] dad involved with JB's diploma = Budha.

[This diploma would be comparable to a modern high-school or associate's degree. Afterward JB began to read law, earning a law license in 1812, age 21.]


matrikaraka [mother] * garha-karaka [village]

  • [Chandra-Dhanus] comforted by customary beliefs * settled into rhythmic received teachings * needs to feel wisely guided
  • [Chandra in Pūrvāṣāḍhā-Apah] calmed by valued beliefs * protectors of inspirational beauty * needs philosophical harmony
  • [Chandra in classroom-5]comfortable with politics * familiar with speculation * intelligent confident mother * soothed by playing games * charmed by children * needs applause * sensitive to center-stage roles * nourished by self-expression * feels entitled * attuned to heart-centered emotion * settled into the rhythm of artistic performance * routinely seeks amusement * calmed by admiration * undulating celebrity * mother may be an actress, scholar, creator, gambler, romantic


Mom is described as "an educated woman". Chandra in classroom-5 is well aligned with [uchcha] Surya in bhava-9, suggesting that the parents were harmonious paired. Mom would have enjoyed politics [5] and promoted her son's career.

Historians record that due to Mom's character and Dad's financial success, despite having been born in a leaky log cabin, JB enjoyed significant social advantage during his upbringing. Guru in bhava-2shows the family's treasury.

MARRIAGE partnership emotional equity support expectations


bhratru-karaka [brother] virya-karaka [virile] [svakshetra]

[Yogakaraka for Simha indriya-lagna]

[karako bhavo nashto for father, patrons, indoctrinators]

[dynamic humanistic innovator]

[competitive broad worldview]




[mūlatrikoṇa Aśvini-1]

  • [Mangala-Mesha] vigorous pursuit of dominance * straightforward dynamic actions * competitive winner * propulsive battering weaponry * push toward conquest * pioneering vitality * hot yang-energy * thrusting force * forward-driving movement * champion of innovation
  • [Mangala in bhava-9] drive toward doctrine * champion of paradigmatic belief * pursuit of patronage * dynamic preaching * philosophy of innovation * believes in conquest * aggressive or sexualized paternal energies * dominating military father-figures * growth-challenging paternal behavior
  • [Kuja-yuti-Surya] kinetic creativity * glorious innovator * high-energy confidence * dynamic genius * dominating force joins willful charm * competitive politics * brilliant winner * physically active father-figure * vigorous theatrical display
  • [Kuja-yuti-Budha] proactive communications * energized signaling * dynamic reporting * clipped speech patterns * abrupt announcements * champion of vigorous messaging * pushes toward direct commands * forward thrusting gestures * incisive speech * forceful writing
  • [Kuja-yuti-Ketu] vigorous break-ups * enervated * passive-aggressive * high-energy collapse * fierce pursuit of impermanence * pointless fights * diffused sexuality * dynamic wandering * apathetic brother-figures * potential for aggressive self-annihilation * pushes toward non-attachment * liberation by force



jamayah-karaka [sibling] sandeza-karaka [message] zisya-karaka [student]

[vriddhi-pati for Simha indriya-lagna]

[conserving dhana-pati for Simha indriya-lagna]

[Dhanayoga Budha-9 rules 2 + 11]

[narrative of competitive father-figure]

[dominating ideological viewpoint]

[communicates about conquest]

[solicits patronage for innovative pursuits]


[Atmakaraka messaging, information, instruction, reporting, committees, cohort, communication, commerce]

[Dhanayoga Budha-9 rules 2 + 11]



[Budha-yuti-Ketu ]


  • [Budha-Mesha] innovative communications * pioneering pronouncement * articulation of dynamic movement * discusses physical experience * vigorous descriptive explanations * growth-challenging conversation * messages about contests * vocabulary of vitality * hands-arms-shoulders send competitive gestures
  • [Budha in bhava-9] narrative of father-figure * witty guru * celebrated communicator * repeats the catechism * reiterates the doctrine * skillful grandchildren * discusses patronage * detailed articulation of worldview * explains the paradigm of belief * talks about sacred texts * examines the dharma * interprets theoretical claims * delivers quick sermons * logical investigations into philosophical truths * chatty priests * religious dialogues
  • [Budha-yuti-Surya] amusing explanations * entertaining chatter * central roles in communication * brightly clear descriptions * dramatic enunciation * confidently delivers instruction * articulation of radiant certainty * political messenger * talkative father-figures
  • [Budha-yuti-Mangala] competitive communications * scripted actions * impatient conversations * potential for sexualized messaging * penetrating explanations * direct instruction * signals forward action * pioneering movement * outspoken opinions * talkative brother-figures
  • [Budha-yuti-Ketu ] mentally disconnected * explainer of impermanence * describes dissociation * articulates the process of dissolution * evacuated meeting spaces * incoherent conversations * sends prayers to the ineffable * spacey siblings * surrenders the attempt to render a complete message * speaks as the observing Witness * may channel the talkative spirits


Classic Budha-created dhanayoga for Simha indriya-lagna ++ additional dhana Budha in bhava-9 ruler of 11 in 11th-from-11th.

For Simha indriya-lagna, Budha the MoneyMaker rules both 2 and 11

Father was a merchant [Budha]

  • dhana from family coffers + Guru-2. JB hailed from a financially privileged family in 18th century frontier Pennsylvania. His parents began married life in humble circumstances. Dad developed a large diverse income as JB grew

  • dhana from political donation from Southern planters = 11


dhava-karaka [husband] bahuta-karaka [variety]

  • [Guru-Kanya] much ministry of service * many servants * numerous employees * indoctrination of laborers * much logical argumentation * conflicted guidance * permission to help * generously assists many victims * optimistic about medication * believes in aid * doctrine of benevolent humility
  • [Guru in bhava-2] much hoard * many songs * many stories * extensive history * generous reserves * several genetic lines * many accumulated goods * numerous languages * expansive oratory * large eyes * many voices * many valuations * extensive accounts * grows the family lineage * optimistic heritage * believes in historic conservation * patron of speech-and-song * in a wifely nativity, husbandly-companion may be a keeper-collector-preserver


Consistently employed in both elected and appointed governance roles

* Buchanan was elected to to Pennsylvania House of Representatives at age 23. Buchanan remained "in portfolio" with no gaps between political assignments, both elected and appointed, until his retirement from the 15th Presidency his age 70.


svadu-karaka [sweet] kalatra-karaka [wifely companion]

[Malavya Yoga]

[dutiful karmesha for Simha indriya-lagna]

[busy vikrama-pati for Simha indriya-lagna]

[sweetly preserving commander of elite treasuries]

[public roles in ornamentation-art-music-luxury]

[opulent icon of commercial finance]


[Shukra rules Purvaphalguni indriya-lagna]

  • [Shukra-Urisha] valuable arrangements * attuned to capital resources [including human capital] * appreciates wealth * pleased by worthy collections * attracted to beautiful sounds * acquisitive sensuality * cherished accruals * financial harmony * richly historic environments * delighted by precious goods * prefers luxury-loving partners
  • [Shukra-10] seeks pleasure via regulated order * enjoys regulatory authority * socially prominent contractual agreements * reputation for gracious balancing * institutional finance * respects feminine-figures * harmonious governance * aesthetic of beautiful structures * appreciation of order * in a husbandly nativity, wifely-companion may hold an elite social position


Shukra rules Purvaphalguni lagna

POTUS-15 Oregon Treaty 1791-1868 James Buchanan = [so far] the only fully confirmed gay POTUS. JB enjoyed a lifepartnership with the USA Senator from Alabama. JB had an active social life in the Washington high society of the day. Known for lifelong career in diplomacy and crafting alliances in legislative governance.

1853-1856 USA minister to Britain with POTUS-14 Bleeding Kansas 1804-1869 Franklin Pierce

1845-1849 * USA Sec'y State with POTUS-11 Manifest Destiny 1795-1849 James Knox Polk

1834-1845 * US Senator from Pennsylvania

1832-1833 * USA minister to Russia with POTUS-07 Indian Removal 1767-1845 Andrew Jackson

1821-1831 * US Congressmember from Pennsylvania


duro-karaka [endurance] *jara-karaka [Jahre, years]

[Harsha Yoga]

  • [Shani-Meena] oppressive dreams * socially responsible imagination * fear of vast waters * required immersion * must use symbolic images * aging affects the bedroom * structural compression upon aching feet * strictly imposed sanctuary * endures proletarian prayer * slow elder diviners * limited access to ancient ancestor guides * pragmatically constrained intuition * must sustain the astral resonance * scarce contemplative resources * maintainer of old interior visions
  • [Shani in Bhava-8] steady time-structured transformations * impedes infinity * must impose order upon dangerous environments * resists the advance of inexorable change * must regenerate while maintaining the system * cautiously conventional initiations * tense renewals * postpones surgery * fear of eruptions * chronic trauma patterns * pressures on the hidden mechanisms of sexual-reproduction * blocks the revelation of mysteries * pushback against emerging new cycles * disaster fatigue * martial law * dry rigidity limits rejuvenation * frugal in-laws * elders preserve undisclosed assets


From Chandra-Dhanus indriya-lagna, the mature voice of sober serious structured hierarchical Professor Shani rules

  1. the emotionally-motivated traditionalism, family lineage conserving, treasure-preserving, language-and-history remembering, acquisitive, genetic conservation of 2nd-from-Chandra
  2. the emotionally talkative, information-delivering, evangelical, publishing, announcing, script-reading, reporting, conversational, process-managing communications of 3rd-from-Chandra

Shani mahadasha * age 61 until decease age 77

Shani-8 resists action in dangerous environments, does nothing, fears innovation, prevents intervention

  • At the onset of Rahu Mahadasha, JB began his political career at his age 23 in the Pennsylvania State Assembly.
  • His ascent to higher ranks continued via an unbroken chain of political promotions that propelled JB's success through 18 years of Rahu Mahadasha ++ 16 years of Guru Mahadasha.
  • JB promoted: from Congress to Senate, serving as ambassador to Britain and Russia, and Secretary of State. Finally he obtained the long-sought role of POTUS-15 from 1857 until 1861 .
  • Shani mahadasha began at JB's age 61.
  • The first blow to JB's vitality was the sudden death of his lifepartner William Rufus King, from tuberculosis, during JB's Shani-Shani svabhukti. Shani in Bhava-8 = 2nd-from-7-partner
  • When the Shani Mahadasha started, Buchanan had amassed a great body of career experience. As foreign ambassador under several previous presidents; a vigorous attorney and legislator,JB was seen to have political multi-talents.
  • As a career diplomat and negotiator, JB was expected to be a war-deflecting, peace-making POTUS.
  • However, Shani's cold grip froze JB in his tracks.
  • JB simply demurred from all action, whether pro-slavery or anti-slavery. He said alternately "it is only a minor legal problem" and "there is nothing I can do".


rajyalobha-karaka [ambition] picchala-karaka [slippery]

  • [Rahu-Tula] shimmering illusion of balance * craving for trade * mask of fairly bargained contracts * over-reaching advocacy * outsider who cleverly insinuates into trusted counseling roles * sweetly unconventional adjudication * exceptional accommodation * mixed-measure balance * extravagant brokerage * mirage of suave deal-making * extraordinary terms of mutual agreement * gracious non-customary alliances * ambitious diplomacy * seeks special importance via apparent [but perhaps not authentic] equity-assured negotiation * seeks privilege via adviser-roles
  • [Rahu in bhava-3] passion for communication * in svabhava of Busy Budha, the Shadowy Specter = glamorous writing * exotic photography * unusual journalistic reporting * thrilling announcements * unorthodox commentary * mesmerizing messaging * craves publication * ambitious sibling-cousins * mixed-culture collaborative teams * desire for conversations * over-reaching commerce * exciting gestures * opportunistic approach to manufacturing * entranced by information technology * boundary-breaching via unconventional explanations * fascinating evangelism * seeks privilege via management roles


An awkward 6/8 angle between Rahu and His ruler Shukra

Rahu in bhava-3 committee work, documentation controlled by Shukra-10 executive authority

  • Buchanan's reputation among his Pennsylvania constituency steadily eroded while it became obvious that he was trading * pro-slavery votes for direct financial support from the Southern planter class.

Uttaraphalguni-Aryaman JB really liked attending nice parties.

  • While socializing in the national interest, Buchanan's rather luxurious personal lifestyle was being secretly subsidized by rich southern slave-plantation owners
  • 10th-from-Chandra = Guru expanding assets
  • Unfortunately, after decades of enjoying the plush company of the monied growers Shukra-10-Vrishabha, JB was deeply in the pockets of the slave-owners.
  • Despite being himself a Pennsylvania northerner, and despite his clear electoral mandate from northern voters to severely limit or stop slavery in the nation, he continued to defend the planters' claims that slavery was constitutionally protected.


kavandha-karaka [headless] chidra-karaka [gaping] vasana-karaka [vacuum]

  • [Ketu-Mesha] physically dissociates from competitive dominance * incomplete nobility * eccentric innovations * unconventional athletics * heroic push forward into nothingness * dissolute conquest * not limited by blood or birth * ignores restrictions on kinetic movement * releases a blood-red cloud of dynamic energy into the misty abyss
  • [Ketu in classroom-9] disinterested in credenda * wandering worldview * disengaged from faith doctrine * disregards theory * liberating philosophy * irrelevance of patriarchal dogma * ambivalence toward conventional convictions * spacey father * weird beliefs * ignores the ordinary understandings * incoherent ideology * unless other graha in 9, may prefer to live free from father-figures
  • [Ketu-yuti-Surya] uncertain * abandons entitlements * sparkling empty drama * wavering confidence * proudly aloof father * apathetic politics * intellectual disengagement * dispersed vision * avoids power-games * unfulfilled creative genius * half-hearted gambling * charmingly incoherent entertainments * brightly wandering intelligence * liberation via surrendered egocentricity
  • [Ketu-yuti-Kuja] restless * surrendered championship * abandons fighting * inconsistent actions * disconnected brethren * odd innovations * unsustainable domination * apathetic competitions * peculiar disability * unfulfilled quest * pushes toward impermanence * incomplete births * liberation via vigorous movement
  • [Ketu-yuti-Budha] miscalculations * incoherent references * empty talk * unsustainable explanations * irrational statements * chats about non-existent events * spacey sibling-cohort * apathetic evangelism * incomplete details * witty misnomers * vacuous plans * unfulfilled deliveries * illogical messaging * liberation via mental surrender * for commercial nativities, may dissolve the cooperative team


Political vacillating and dithering.

Ketu-9 yuti the rulers of 1 + 2 + 4 + 9 + 11

POTUS-15 Oregon Treaty 1791-1868 James Buchanan is often ranked by historians as the worst [or one of the worst] USA presidents in history. From his early 20's [political career began age 23] until his early 40's, Buchanan was a vigorously active attorney. By the onset of Shani Mahadasha his age 61, JB had not practiced law in decades. He had lived outside the USA as a diplomat during antebellum decade and knew little about the social and economic violence of slavery. JB's arrogance [non-questioning] trivialized the massive moral offense of slavery as "a small matter" of Constitutional Law.

Since the beginning of his political ascendance age 23, Buchanan had been elected and re-elected by northerners seeking moral leadership. Yet, Because he was beholden to the financially privileged slave-owning planters who funded his lifestyle, and also because he preferred a romanticized view of the agrarian-roots Deep South [where he did not live and about which he knew little] Buchanan was unable to decide.

As POTUS-15, he blustered and dithered.

Instead of addressing the monumental moral questions, Buchanan spent four years pretending that there was no serious problem. As moral outrage reached the boiling point, JB ignored the moral arguments, taking instead a legalist stance. JB claimed that while it was illegal for the southern states to secede from the union, it was equally illegal for the Union government to force reunification.

Scholars see Buchanan's tenure as the nadir of national leadership which could not have come at a worse time.

Meanwhile JB Simha-Uttaraphalguni-Aryaman enjoyed holding court at Washington D.C. salon-parties. He retired in a climate of non-accountability [Ketu] claiming that he was not responsible for the problems he left behind. As the Civil War began to rage, retired POTUS-15 James Buchanan wrote a self-justifying book defending his presidential actions and blaming the slavery problem on impatient abolitionists.

The book was ignored. The terrible war had started.


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