sade sati * sade sathi * sadhe-satti
Saturn's Seven-and-a Half-Year Transit across the 12th, 1st, and 2nd Rashi of Chandra
"freezing" (Shani) of the flow (Chandra)
The 7-plus year transit of Saturn across three bhava =
the bhava preceding the Moon + the bhava containing the Moon + the bhava after the Moon
Sisyphus was condemned to eternal effort of endlessly pushing a boulder uphill
The Carnac stones = a dense collection of megalithic sites around Carnac village in Bertaeyn * Brittany * Bretagne.
More than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the Celtic or pre-Celtic worshippers.
Dates to approximately 3000-4500 BCE.
Social (Shani)-Emotional (Chandra) Trauma
Emotional Exhaustion, temporary absence of of Psychic Support, crisis of legitimacy
separation from parents especially mother
Removal of Outdated Emotional Attachments and Expectations
"God promises a safe landing, not a calm passage."
Aum som somaya namah
"The emotions behind your thoughts determine the speed at which you manifest."
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"Sade Sati" means "Seven and a-half", which is the duration of the three-rashi complete Saturn transit to radix Moon ." The anglicized version can be spelled"sade saati" or"sade sati" or"Sade-saadi" or numerous other transliterations from Sanskrit, Prakrit, and vernacularizations.
Seven years duration = three sections
The traditional Sade Sati = "seven-and-a-half" years in duration.
step-1 = Dwadasa
Sade Sati begins as gochara Shani enters the sign previous to your rashi Moon."Gochara" (transiting) Shani remains in the sign previous to your Moon for +/-2.4 years.
step-2 = Janma
= the acute phase
Sade Sati continues in **the most intense annihilating mid-section** as Shani enters the precise sign of your rashi Moon for +/-2.4 years.
Emotional trauma resulting from profound grief following
Mental pessimism; expecting the worst.
step-3 = Dwithiya
Sade Sati concludes as gochara Shani exits the sign following your rashi Moon.
Total transit time =96 months
"Seven and a half" generalization.
Shani retrogrades at least once and possibly several times during each Sade Sati. The length of Shani's retrograde * vakragati * vakri periods is variable. However regardless of the start date and end date, the total effect of Sade Sati is spread over Approximately 96 months.
Most effects occur in the"janma" periods, the middle 28 months
Unless there are graha in all three houses (before the Moon, containing the Moon, and after the Moon), Sade Sati effects occur *predominantly* during Shani's transit through the house of the Moon. Sade Sati therefore is more like "sade-dwati" in that the tangible effects are normally limited to a 2.4 year period (about 28 months) within the middle range of the transit.
There are some exceptional nativities which have most of the graha concentrated in the three bhava surrounding and containing the Moon;
these exceptional births will have exceptional results.
Having graha on both sides of the Moon is quite auspicious, and Shani reduces the auspicious conditions to which the native has grown accustomed. So these natives feel the impact of deprivation and loss more acutely than those who had less to lose in the first place.
Role of Vimshottari Dasha timelords
The Vimshottari bhukti in effect during the Sade Sati is a considerable determiner of the overall emotional experience.
If a bhukti period of Shani or Chandra coincides with the Sade Sati transit, results will be more dramatic.
Curriculum of Sade sati |
Typical agents of Chandra * protection and Shani * resistance
Emotional pain and its learning purpose
Sade Sati is a wonderful classroom opportunity if approached consciously. Nothing in this world is pointlessly painful. Rather, pain is a signal that a limit has been reached.
To reduce the pain, identify the limit * wall * fence * barrier * prohibition * restriction that is being relentlessly pushed upon.
If consciousness is available, one may acknowledge the nature of the barrier (or acknowledge that the barrier is apprehended but perhaps not yet fully understood.) Then decide whether one wishes to retreat, develop more flexibility or an alternate approach, or perhaps one might wish to summon the energy to try to push through the obstacle.
In sade-sati, the pain is the result of emotionally banging one's head against a wall by pretending that the wall is not there. Usually in this sort of contest the wall tends to win.
Usually the wall is an emotional barrier. Caretakers, mother-figures, schoolteachers, parents, those charged with providing shelter and nourishment, those expected to produce unconditional love and acceptance, those who are trusted implicitly in protective and supportive roles, the homeland and the childhood home, the village, the root-culture, the ethnicity, its rhythms and customs, the farms and the fisheries, the ancient habits and seasonal calendar of a people in their place of settlement, all things local and parochial * these are the typical agents of sade-sati.
Whatever comfort and protection is implicitly expected from these agents is likely to be inhibited by forces of resistance (Shani) whether the agent is a person or an environment.
Sade Sati = emotionally challenging * deeply maturing
A disciplined person may retrospect on three or even four Sade Sati periods (once every 28 years approx). Looking back, one may admit that the sade sati periods are often the most pragmatically grounded and realistic sections of one's life.
The reason for the intensified maturity is that sade-sati typically retards and often prohibits depending upon other people for one's own psycho-emotional sustenance. Others tend to be emotionally cold, Thus one reaches inward to discover one's own emotional resources, and the result is a deepening awareness of inner strengths which were not before known.
Sade Sati is undoubtedly a period of maturization and bottom-line materialism (Shani) in the psycho-mental experience (Chandra). It involves temporary deprivation of emotional protection from parental figures and permanent loss of personal naiveté.
One may be deprived of care from external caretakers. During this process one may learn to care for oneself. Because men are trained to rely on women for their emotional awareness and support, whereas women have stronger cultural permission to access their own emotional resources, the Sade Sati is typically more difficult for men.
One may experience an enduring, relentless feeling of severe emotional distress. Sade Saati transit, occurring once every 28-30 years, usually results in a deep feeling that the foundations of one’s life have collapsed.
Shani means Stop. Chandra means Comfort.
Sade Sati is deeply uncomfortable. Comfort means "with strength, with protection". Under Shani's relentless oppression, human comfort factors are battered away; the fortifications are dried and desiccated.
Those designated to guide and protect one (the Chandra figures) have stopped protecting, stopped guiding, and stopped supporting. Even basic comfort like nourishing food and secure housing may be Shani-scarce. The key experience is often the profound disappointment of expectations, specifically the expectation that one should receive some form of mothering-parenting shelter from a protective personality or by extension from Mother Earth as guardian protector. At its extreme, Sade Sati can produce a feeling of being distinctively unsafe.
Although the Sade Sati experience is often emotionally devastating, it does have a spiritual purpose. The higher intent is to encourage the person to find their security and protection within the self, within the Source that is within the self. In the end, after a long 2.3 year period of emotional alienation and exhaustion, the final conclusion of the Sade Sati is usually a firm decision to release the emotionally disappointing non-supporters and go forward in one's own way.
There are always several aspects to the Sade Sati dilemma, including family issues, finance, health (mental and physical), social relationships, and interior spiritual work. One therapeutic approach that can have long-term benefits of consciousness expansion is to make a list of the most acute disappointments matched with their expectations. What was expected, and what has failed to meet the expectations? This is the spiritual crux of the Sade Sati. If the previously unconscious expectations can be exposed, a great freedom from inner oppression may be gained.
Similarly, if the nativity features a birth conjunction of Saturn + Moon = Nishturabashi Yoga, then results of the Sade Sati can be overwhelmingly burdensome to the extent that one feels entirely deprived of emotional validity. The sources of psycho-spiritual intuitive nourishment may appear to have dried up completely.
Suicide is a very rare outcome of the temporary stress of Sade Sati. However under very severe circumstances it can happen.
Emotional crisis = spiritual blessing
Eradicating the 'dead wood'
a clarion call to honesty in emotional relationships
Sade Sati is usually a spiritual blessing in disguise , because its harshly realistic conditions serve to expose the bald truth about exhausted, dead-wood, non-nourishing, non-supportive, non-validating relationships which are in place only because they are comfortingly habitual (Chandra) and socially (Shani) expected.
Even if Sade Sati involves the tragic death of the mother, the underlying spiritual reality is that the mother has done all she can do to support the native . It is Time (Shani) for her withdraw to the astral plane and permit the native to establish (Chandra) one's own self-protective, self-defensive, self-validating environment.
Spiritually, Shani acts with relentless pragmatism, systematically (Shani) eliminating these unsupportive placeholder conventionally programmed but unproductive attachments because they are preventing more authentically nourishing new relationships from taking root.
But socially, Sade-Sati nearly always predicts a conflict between what society wants and expects, versus what the individual needs for emotional survival.
During Sade-Sati, Shani imposes one social regulation after the next, but the native is slow to meet institutional expectations. One feels stuck, unable to get fuel for forward movement.
It is as if the rug has been pulled out from underneath. There is a sense of deep hungry emptiness, with no help coming from outside structures. No one steps forward to push or assist.
A profound exhaustion mid-transit often paralyzes (Shani) all forward action until a deeply honest emotional decision can be taken.
Sade Sati is superstitiously believed to trigger "seven years of bad luck" and people are told to expect the worst in every department of life.
Fluctuations of mood (Moon) and key material events (Shani) may be timed according to:
"Luck" is not accidental; rather,"luck" is the result of expectations, attitude, energy and responsibility invested, and intelligent cooperation with the Divine. As the golfer Gary Player famously said of his championship winning strategy,"The more I practice, the luckier I get."
Parents and Care-givers
Typically, Sade Sati oppresses the ease of one's relationship to parents, care-givers, and providers of education or shelter.
Shani may bring extra responsibility in caring for elderly parents, extra effort required to provide shelter for one's family, or an extra sustained push to attain an educational diploma. The extra efforts involve numerous setbacks and frustrating delays.
The most severe impact is when sade saati indicates the actual death of a parent, most commonly the mother. In this case the native must process the grief from the loss of one parent while also trying to support and protect the surviving parent.
WWhether sade saati involves parental (or care-giver) death or not depends on the Vimshottari Dasha period in effect simultaneous with the Sade Saati. Usually Sade Saati is simply severe emotional oppression with a tangible experience of bondage to social expectations via an exceptionally heavy workload related to caregiving - often caring for parents - for the core 2.3 years of the transit.
Yet if conditions are properly configured, the material death of the mother is not uncommon.
Recently a case occurred of the Sade Saati simultaneouswith a bhukti of the pitrimaraka dhanesha-2nd from the 9th from the 7th, i.e., the death of the father of the spouse. In addition to many other heavy family responsibilities, the native shouldered the burden for the pre-death nursing care and funeral expenses for her husband's elderly father. As a wife and mother also tending to the husband's father, she was stretched to the breaking point both physically and emotionally. Yet as always during the Sade Saati, she did not break.
In another case, for Thula radical lagna, Sade Saati occurred during the bhukti of makara Mangala , in a nativity where Mangala also ruled matrimaraka 2nd-from-Thula Chandra. In this case the native 's mother died.
Vimshottari dasha, Nishturabhashi Yoga, and Sade Sati
The Vimshottari dasha periods running simultaneously with the Sade Sati are very powerful regulators of intensity of the Sade Sati experience .
When Nishturabhashi Yoga applies, the effects of Sade Sati are very powerful.
Check the bhava for characteristic details of the emotional crisis, but the effects will be strong in any house.
Stress Zone: Be Realistic and Have Faith
The rashi and bhava of Chandra will indicate the major stress zone, and outline the lesson intended to be learned. However the native is typically well-equipped to not only survive but profit from the Sade Sati.
For most nativities, it's only the middle slice Of each 7-year period , of 2.4 years or so, when Shani transits the sign of the Moon itself, that has the most dramatic effect.
(I know of no description of the 4th Sade Sati in scripture.)
When Sade-Sati = especially difficult :
IFgraha occupy the bhava preceding Chandra
AND graha occupy the bhava immediately subsequent to Chandra,
then the full seven-year Sade Sati might feel like a continuous seven-year emotional battering.
Failed expectations cause more mature realism
When government agency is perceived as parental protector:
If the Sade Sati occurs during the Shani Mahadasha,
then the intensity of experience of"lack of support" may become greatly amplified.
For most people, the combination of Shani Mahadasha with Sade Sati is quite exhausting,
Exceptions and successful strategies:
If the 2.4 year white-hot-core of Sade Sati coincides with a Shani bhukti, and Shani occupies a less benevolent angle from the mahadasha pati,
Be prepared to meet significant material and emotional obstacles during these heavily karmic periods of lack of support, frustration, resistance, separation, and delay.
In partnership with the divine, in a neutral mentality and with full karmic responsibility, it is quite sensible to prepare for a period of sorrow, discomfort, and grief.
Most humans are endowed with a powerful will to survive. Chances are excellent that you, too, will survive the Sade Sati.
Compose your physical, emotional, mental, and social survival kit . Keep your papers in order and advise your family of emergency plans.
If unknown factors should emerge to lighten your burden, so much the better. But usually the prognosis for this brief-but-intense coinciding period is stormy weather indeed.
If Sadhe Sati in the nativity does NOT coincide with the Shani Mahadasha or an uncomfortable Shani bhukti, it is likely that one will escape the most brutal effects of Shani in this life.
Traditional Remedy and Protective Talisman for Sade-Sati Stress
Planetary gemologist Richard Shaw-Brown has written several lovely web pages about the traditional properties of Rudraksha Seeds. (An ancient deity, Rudra the Lord of Dangerous Storms has morphed into an expression of Lord Shiva.) See:
Traditional-culture folks in India are often terrified of Sade Sati . These fears resemble old European superstitiously fears saying seven years of bad luck will follow breaking a mirror.
Superstitious folk often do intensive puja to appease the imaginary "power outside oneself" so that they, the little people, can escape some uncontrollable unspeakable abuse by higher forces.
I find that with our modern advantages of education, self-reliance, and access to information, that we can intelligently solve Sade Sati problems with various forms of healing knowledge.
It is possible to experience Sade Sati with both eyes open, free of anxiety and superstitious fears.
After all, Sade Sati consumes seven years out of every 28-29 year Saturn cycle. The average person is likely to have three or four Sade Sati periods lasting 96 months each, within in each lifetime.
Approximately one-quarter of the average life span is spent in the karmic-payback Sade Sati environment.
It helps tremendously to be emotionally prepared for a period of feeling unsupported, and to work consciously with ourselves to develop a reliable internal source of self-validation and self-support.
As the Chinese saying goes, Crisis is Opportunity .
The end result of Sade Sati -- for a spiritually conscious person -- is the usual benefit of Tapasya : One accepts the resistance and stops pushing from the ego. A string of losses, failures or disappointments is often the perfect wake-up call.
During Sade Sati, the spirits demand one's conscious partnership s as they call one's attention to finer levels of detail. Shani's purification process allows one to replace the ineffective decision-making style of crude ego-membrane (i.e., insisting things go your way) with the much more accurate directives of the spirits (i.e., the way life really is).
of course, it's not natural for the ego-membrane to give up petty control - even when its primitive"toddler-style-I-want" demands are obviously dysfunctional. It usually takes a big blast to the ego-membrane in the guise of massive emotional exhaustion or disappointments during Sade Sati, to force the survival issue enough to make the person consider another way of life.
For those lucky few who are psychically sophisticated enough to appreciate that our lives are controlled by forces much greater than we normally acknowledge, it is fairly easy to make the transition to maturity demanded by Sade Sati. The problem is overextended ego-membrane and that is easy to fix.
The solution is partnership with the divine and you know it. It's really just a question of admitting the ego -membrane's obvious limitations and going to a higher power for help. If one is prepared to accept a new decision-management style that incorporates both appropriate ego-membrane and divine will, one may experience -- As the direct benefit of sade sati -- an enormous boost in intelligence, intuition, and success.
However, for the psychically unsophisticated, the realization that one is actually creating the resistance through one's own unexamined ego-attachments, usually occurs only at the end of the 2.4 year intense section, if at all.
If the person is enslaved to victim-mentality, he may waste the entire incarnation blaming others for his ego-created troubles, and living in dread of loss of external support during the next Sade Sati.
For another balanced, humanistic Jyotisha viewpoint on Sade-Sati, read Rohini Ranjan's opinion.
| Dear Barbara, |
I'm a bit intimidated by your description of the"white-hot core" Sade Sati scheduled to occur in my eighth house Vrizchika during my mid-forties.
This Sade Sati sounds emotionally grueling and pointlessly painful.
What's the point? Any remedies? Will my Buddhist studies and meditation practice be of any benefit during this trying time?
Also I'm worried about my emotional interaction with my children. Will I continue to be emotionally available to them, and be a good parent?
| Namaste, |
During Sade-sati it may feel as if the emotional foundation has been temporarily removed in your life (Shani oppressing Chandra) and that the world has no empathy. Rules, rules, rules and work, work, work.
However, the conscious meditation practitioner will be able to see an opportunity to examine the expectations about emotional support.
It's true that the illusion of 'external' emotional support does disappear in Shani's climate of extreme realism.
Nevertheless, there is a reliable source of internal emotional support, a veritable fountain of self-love, self-care, and self-nourishment, flowing from the deepest wellspring within. It is just waiting to be tapped; and it is a much more pure and nourishing resource than any outside person or agency could possibly provide.
The projected external"Chandra-karaka" providers such as mother, grandmother, spouse, schoolteachers, parent-figures, caretakers of all kinds, even the family-welfare agencies of the government, are highly unreliable and seem to evaporate when needed most.
The only constant is change.
However, one who is able to tap their inner parent, inner protector, inner nourisher, inner anchor -- will profit immensely from the sade-sati experience, and carry forward through the rest of adult life the wisdom that the external projections are the merest images of internal beliefs.
The experienced meditation practitioner will find that sade-sati was extremely realistic, emotional dry, truthful, accurate, scientifically validating, exposes unsupportable expectations and assumptions, and forces discovery of inner resources.
An old, outdated identity will die and a new, authentic rebirthed self will emerge. The new self is mature (Shani) neutral, pragmatic, and automatically self-healing. Only you really know what you need to feel good, feel protected, feel grounded, feel like you belong in your chosen place.
Sade Sati instructs how to meet one's own needs, self-parent, and thus makes one a MUCH better parent toward one's own children. Also better teacher, better lover, even better neighbor and better friend.
One withdraws the dependence on others' presumed natural desire to use their emotions to care for one, and replaces that dependence upon outsiders with a sure, reliable source of internal intelligence that skillfully defines one's own needs then takes action to meet those needs directly, unmediated by an outside personality or government system.
In the big picture, Sade Sati is essential for bringing each person into the full bloom of responsible adulthood. Spiritually, it a very good thing to do when properly understood and negotiated with awareness. But once every 30 years is enough!
Wishing you every happiness and continuing success in your study of the samayavidya,
Barbara Pijan Lama, Jyotisha
| Suggestions for a person enduring a long-term family-wide suffering, during simultaneous Ketu Mahadasha + Sade Saati. |
This difficult combination can produce
karma of unsustainable (Ketu) responsibility (Shani) for situations that are far, far beyond one's control
while experiencing the feeling (Chandra) of almost complete absence of emotional support (Sade-Sati)
It is negotiable and survivable but the"witness " perspective will be essential to deriving the benefit from this particular karmic classroom!
Shani = fear + structure + chronic pain
Ketu = fearlessness + dispersion + numbing release
| Namaste, |
Thanks very much for your compliments on the website . I'm delighted to know that you find the materials there to be useful in your study of the samayavidya.
People around the world write in to say that their Jyotisha comprehension is improving as they work more with case studies and example charts. I'm committed to maintaining (and I hope improving) the site so long as it remains useful. Thanks very much for your kind encouragement.
I'm very sorry to hear of the deep suffering in your family and wish you every possible healing. Depending on your belief system and depending on the bhava of Ketu, periods of unorthodox and dissolving Ketu can indeed lead to healing because chidakaraka (the"cutter") Ketu can cut through old blockage.
Ketu the Cutter = a healing agent when change is needed to modernize painfully outdated relationship agreements ... although it often doesn't seem so at the time, if one is afraid (Shani) that any change in the status-quo may make things worse.
Often the experience of being locked-in (Shani, freezing, seizing) to long-term relationships that feature tightness, scarcity of resources, heavy obligations, and chronic pain is related to Shani's mandate to uphold the conventional rules and conform to social expectations.
Shani the Regulator is an agent of fear, structure, and chronic conditions.
Ketu disregards time, Ketu ignores structure and Ketu is fearless.
Shani-yuti-Ketu(or in other conjoined circumstances such as gochara when acting as a yoked pair) = never directly confrontational. Yet their mixing can produce some significant suffering.
Ketu can actually show the way out of the painful state of seizure (Shani), primarily via mediation. Ketu can provide helpful openings in the barrier between the material world and the astral world.
"disembodied" Ketu periods provide the opportunity to connect with spirit guides who are sentient beings just like us humans however they do not have flesh-bodies.
Spirit guides can be exceptionally helpful if it is understood by both the human-being and the spirit-being that ultimately, the human has seniority; the human controls the relationship. Good quality spirit guides enjoy helping and they are usually quite amenable to service roles. (However if a spirit guide seems too controlling they need to be dismissed.)
Spirit guides can call our attention to things that we don't normally see. By directing our attention to subtle patterns in human-to-human relationships and helping us to get validation from sources outside the outdated bond, spirit guides may be able to show a compassionate way out of the obligation trap.
For example, a spirit-guide may send a signal such as small skin chill when one is feeling an emotional trigger in a painful relationship. It is just a small attention-getter but it can help build consciousness of painful, dysfunctional patterns that need to change.
During Ketu periods, whether one chooses to work with spirit guides or not, metaphorically cutting the cord and conducting an exit from the unsustainable structure may eventually leads to truly transformative healing. At first it feels like abandonment or deprivation but soon one may have a feeling of great dis-em-burden-ment (enlightenment).
Ketu tends to vaporize the fear-barriers that can block important knowledge about alternatives to the present situation. Therefore fearless Ketu (the"fool" in tarot) can be an agent of passive enlightenment via 'un-doing" rigid habits. (Shani)
Along the path of undoing, one may access certain spiritualized, otherworldly-guided methods of healing. These methods often involve guidance during the"breaking up" phrase which has to happen before the"big flow" of healing can begin.
Shame - and healing it
If Shani conjoins Ketu, an underlying toxic emotion can be 'shame' . In its essence, shame = the deep fear (Shani) of disconnection (Ketu).
If you are psychologically inclined and there is a pairing of Ketu + Shani (yuti or via drishti) in the kundali, an inquiry into the terrifying emotion of 'shame' may provide some insight into those conditions of paralyzing pain, physical or mental, which pair with emotions of embarrassment or a psychology of masking of the truth.
During Ketu Mahadasha and briefer Ketu periods such as bhukti or pratyantaradasha, Shani's conventional methods of dealing with mental or physical pain are unlikely to seem very coherent.
One tries to be responsible (Shani) and do the right thing yet Ketu creates a fog of dust particles which make it hard to see the socially correct solution.
During any Ketu period, outdated attachments are trying to dissolve.
Shani can counteract Ketu by trying to freeze this dissolving fog.
If you're dealing with Shani effects and Ketu effects at the same time, it can feel like being stuck in a frozen fog or a dark, static dust cloud with no insight into ways to initiate positive movement or change. The gauge is stuck at "pain".
Therefore meditation entered with an openness to accept guidance, even from some rather eccentric spiritual way-show-ers, can offer a first opportunity to start (slowly) getting"un-stuck".
Naturally the belief system must be willing to accommodate the presence of beings without bodies such as ancestor spirits, angels etc. because these are the disembodied (Ketu) agents who can guide the way through the fearful blockage (Shani).
However with or without a psycho-emotional approach to understanding the complex of problems which can result in physical health crisis, it would be recommended to place reliance on meditation with openness to spiritual guidance as the first step in any coincidence of Ketu-with-Shani whether natal or temporary due to transits, drishti, Vimshottari dasha effects etc.
Professor Ketu can serve as a positive spiritual influence indeed but Ketu is effective only after one has crossed the threshold of "abandon all hope".
While the tyranny of hope persists, Ketu and Shani will tend to remain in lockdown.
So, check in with your spiritual state of mind to see if you are willing to release all false hopes and admit that -- having exhausted all conventional methods -- help from otherworldly sources would at this point be welcomed. Professor Ketu dissolves the barrier that divides the material world from the astral world. If that despairing, apathetic Ketuized state of mind is present, then Professor Ketu can bring in some amazingly insightful guidance instructions to detach, forgive"let go and let God".
Professor Ketu teaches -- as Memories Dreams Reflections 1875-1961 Carl Jung wrote --
Wishing you and your family the very best in healthy relationships and freedom from suffering,
Sincerely, Barbara Pijan Lama, Jyotisha
From a reader:
Dear Barbara Pijan, I am very impressed by your description of"Shani" during Sade-sati. This period very much changed me and i find myself a new person. As you mentioned correctly Shani never let a person quit. During my PhD with so many obstacles of health, bad divorce, financial problems, finally i looks forward to get my PhD in 3-4 weeks.
14th Dalai Lama 1935- Policy of Kindness Tenzing Gyatso . (2003).
"What do we mean when we speak of a truly compassionate kindness ?
Others wish to avoid misery as much as we do.
So a compassionate person feels concerned when others are miserable
and develops a positive intention to free them from it.
As ordinary beings,
It is important not to confuse attachment and compassion ....
A compassionate thought is motivated by a wish to help release beings from their misery."
file update: 25-Mar-2017
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