"Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech, when it brings no evil to others, is a pleasant thing." ~~ Sutta Nipata.
Lord Regulator of
Dhana-sthana * Koza-daya * Kutumbha-sthana
= Ruler of 2nd-from-Chandra
in the Twelve Bhava
Role of the Dhana-pathi
History, Storage, Stories, Restoration
| The Story Line|
Living Beautifully by Pema Chödrön, page 15
| "When you practice staying present, one thing you'll quickly discover is how persistent the story line is. |
Traditionally, in the Buddhist texts, our tendencies with their habitual story lines are described as seeds in the unconscious.
When the right causes and conditions come together, these preexisting propensities pop up like flowers in the springtime.
It's helpful to contemplate that it's these propensities and not what triggers them that are the real cause of our suffering."
Surya in bhava-1 political, creative, dramatic speech, song, voice, face, family lineage, language, values, treasuries express via the physical personality-appearance
Chandra in bhava-1 sensitive, protective, needy speech, song, voice, face, family lineage, language, values, treasuries express via the physical personality-appearance
Mangala in bhava-1 conquesting, militarized, sexualized, competitive speech, song, voice, face, family lineage, language, values, treasuries express via the physical personality-appearance
Zukra in bhava-1 diplomatic, adjusting, pleasant speech, song, voice, face, family lineage, language, values, treasuries express via the physical personality-appearance
Shani in bhava-1 systematic, regulatory, conventionalized speech, song, voice, face, family lineage, language, values, treasuries express via the physical personality-appearance
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 1
status-attribute packaging * flesh-shells * physical identity * material body * visual appearance * container
Dhanapathi brings the qualities of the family history directly into the physical appearance
Dhanapathi-2 in the private, enclosed, imaginative, distant-worlds 12th-from-swakshetra
2 = speech- face-mouth-money-food-family-hair-teeth-knowledge-history-languages
One capitalizes upon the basis of the physical body vitality and appearance.
These folks have something to say. Their knowledge is their identity.
Identity: "I am my knowledge of history, my accumulated wealth and values, my food, and my words."
Historical materials and scholarship, wealth, family ancestry, hoarded lineage values : beauty in all of its pleasure-forms, speech, song, languages,
bloodline and psychic family inheritance , traditions, music, heritage, entitlements, teeth,
The social identity is infused with the qualities of mouth, face, tongue, hair, moral and artistic values , ornaments, costume, visual arts, collections, record-keeping,
identified with speech, including surrogate speech
Treasuries of goods and knowledge
death, beauty and knowledge of ancient languages, history, and legacy values of one's people."
Family assets are often key to the life purpose
BPHS Ch. 13, Shloka 2
"If the lord of Dhana is in Dhana,
or is in an angle, or in trine,
he will promote one's wealth (or monetary state)"
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-2
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-2
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-2
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-2
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-2
Dhanapathi-2 = Zukra in bhava-2 * financial wealth , sweet speech, lovely face
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-2
Dhanapathi-2 in swakshetra
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 2
Sustenance / values / food / wealth / family history / Skandha
One capitalizes upon the basis of speech, family lineage and second (or more) marriage.
Wealth may also grow from the hidden dealings (tax shelters) of the first spouse (2nd = 8th-from-7th)
Dramatic, charismatic, vociferous public speakers and singers
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-3
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Chandra in bhava-3
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-3
Dhanapathi-2 = Budha in bhava-3
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Guru in bhava-3
Dhanapathi-2 = Zukra in bhava-3 * dhanakaraka self-made financial wealth
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-3 * self-developed capital knowledge treasure
Dhanapathi-2 speech and historical-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 3 announcements and reports
Dhanapathi-2 in 2nd-from-2nd strongly emphasizes the power of speech and song. Often a memorable face.
Dhanapathi-2 in bhava-3 = often an excellent explainer, instructor, describer, announcer, reporter, public evangelist who brings the power of 'voice' (2) into the realm of 'message' (3)
Dhanapathi-2 in 2nd-from-swakshetra = yoga for *self-made financial well-being *.
The Dhanapathi-2 accumulator agent which "capitalizes " by gathering stores of valuable goods and conserved knowledge has moved into bhava-3 of commercial transactions
writings and publications focused on topic of historical values and traditions, as well as on topics of finance and banking
radio, television, newspapers, internet
short travels and tours
management, meetings, marketing, media, literary correspondence
advertising, photography, cinema, messages using face-eyes-hair
tools and technology, manual skills such as musicianship,
advertising and sales, departmental administration and commercial business
Agents of lineage treasury + knowledge collections such as historic melodies, languages, libraries and storehouses (2) enter into the bhava of self-owned business, commerce, teamwork, sales-transactions, publications, and announcements.
Dhanapathi-2 Values in bhava-3 announcements typically produces a "put your money where your mouth is" exponent of a particular values lineage. Yet the qualities of Dhanapathi-2 and any graha in bhava-2 can affect the expression of the values.
| Public Figures |
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-4 * gainful politics of foundational cultural values
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Mangala in bhava-4 * gainful championship of foundational cultural values
Dhanapathi-2 = Budha in bhava-4 * gainful articulation of foundational cultural values
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-4* gainful expansion of foundational cultural values
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-4 * gainful ordering of foundational cultural values
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 4
home / foundations / folkways / security - Patriotism
Treasuries, Wealth Acquisition, collecting
Dhanapathi-2 in 3rd-from-swakshetra
One capitalizes upon the basis of deeds of title, licensing and diplomas, schooling, knowledge-base, school-teaching, vehicles, owned properties, rhythmic habits, and the cultural upbringing provided by one's parents in the early childhood home.
A nationalistic family lineage extends itself into real estate or protection of a nation (4)
At the most basic (4) level, the family (2) are patriotic (4) conventional in behavior, settled in their place, rooted in the land, and have a rhythmic comfortable lifestyle (4) which follows the established habits of the ethnic people. In a word, "normal".
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = politics Surya in bhava-5 * swabhava
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-5
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-5
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-5
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-5
Dhanapathi-2 = Zukra in bhava-5
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-5
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 5 = ruler of 10th-from-5th in vidyasthana-5.
* lineage values (2) express via politics, drama, creative intelligence (5)
The Dhanapathi-2 accumulator agent which capitalizes by gathering stores of valuable goods and conserved knowledge has moved into
bhava-5 of creative genius and Divine Intelligence
dhanapathi-2 in mantrabhava-5 acquires wealth-knowledge via genius-type self-expressions (especially via speaking and singing) of personal intelligence, speculation children, games, theatre, and politics :
romance and courtly love
politics, drama, literary and performance arts
uniqueness; autobiography and autocracy; monarchy;
independent scholarship (non-institutionalized)
radiance, confidence, center-stage activities
speculative ventures, games, creativity, fashion, entertainment
children, procreativity, the Will, celebrity and celebrations,
royalty and entitlements, fame and charisma, glamour and glitter, bright lights
financial treasury accumulated from performance arts especially when combined with political activism
Extra-strong for Simha lagna natives because moneymaker Budha rules 2-11 occupies 5
Creative literature, particularly autobiographical (5)
Royalty and celebrity fame
The lord of Zukra's bhava- causes a bit of polarizing catalysis in the natural bhava- of Surya.
One's own childhood would have been dominated by the nature of the family history, perhaps to the exclusion of other influences such as local schooling or community friendships.
If malefic, one's childhood environment may have been much constrained by the family culture.
Native gains social dignity (10) though children, politics, speculation, literary and performance arts.
Strong impulse to transmit the values of" family history" (bhava-2) onto one's own children. Romance with those who have similar values regarding money, history, and storage, to the family history.
Children also have a strong sense of family culture, family speech patterns, family language, family aesthetic values. The nature of that family culture is defined by the actual graha that is Dhanapathi-2 along with any graha residing in bhava-2.
If no physical children, then the native will express one's lineage values through performance arts, political contests, and other expressions of individual intelligence and personal creativity.
Dhanapathi-2 in 5th-from-swakshetra gives accumulated wealth through lucky dealings with common/vulgar or negative people and materials. Appeals to vulgar interests.
Speaks in the language of outcastes and servants, about sensual experience (bhava-2) including food, touch, and visual values. Works hard for his cintamani * mani * money , but cleverly.
If a malefic, dramatizes the concerns of the common people, with fortunate results according to the dignity of the graha.
Depending on the character of the malefic, may be a storyteller who uses images of money, food, and death or an entertainer who promotes traditional values of independence, hard work, and conservation of resources
Dhanapathi-2 = the agent who gathers collections and accumulates value. Dhanapathi-2 energizes wealth-building in health, finance, and service industries.
If benefic, dramatizes language or images to get attention. Dramatization becomes exploitation. Tells salacious stories or untruths; works with images of hair, face, and skin; May be a successful preacher, entertainer, publisher or politician who caters to an outcaste or socially marginalized audience.
Speculative investment of group or family monies. Romantic love between family members, incest. Wealth gained through exploitive speculative investment schemes and sordid transactions. Medical problem-sets with tongue, teeth, mouth, hair, and face.
Dhanapathi-2 in 4th-from-swakshetra
One capitalizes (2) upon the basis of performance art, theatrical production and ceremonies, games, politics, literary creativity, genius, capacity to channel divine intelligence, speculation-gambling, autobiographical literature, and most of all children.
| Das commentary :|
IF the lord of the 2 is in 5,
and the lord of the 2 has at least one beneficial placement attribute.
| "You will be blessed with the acquisition of wealth |
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 6
Loss of balance - enemies * disease * Poverty * Crime * criticism * argumentation * analysis * medicine * ministry to the sick and needy
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-6
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-6
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-6
Dhanapathi-2 = Budha in bhava-6
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-6 * multiple service ministries; many health issues
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-6 * family conflict yet financial adequacy
Dhanapathi-2 in 5th-from-swakshetra= the family of origin = financially privileged and creative
One capitalizes upon the basis of mother's relatives, servants and servitude, problem-sets that seem structural, problem-sets that are difficult to solve, engaging in conflict, conflict in human relationships, broken contracts, and illness.
The family is distinguished in medicine, military, or social works.
Or, the family lineage may promote wealth acquired from slavery, criminal activities, accusations or abuses.
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-6
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-6
Generally, family is fortunate financially or culturally due to candescent Chandra ruling 9th-from-Chandra. Yet illness of various types affects the family lineages, and the relationship with family may be contentious. This broad principle becomes especially strong when Chandra rules kutumbha-bhava-2, so that familial illness or addiction defines the family bond.
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-6
If Dhanapathi-2 is dignified, can give a successful career in cosmetic dentistry, private-loan banking, creative applications of art and music toward conflict resolution.
One may be a spokesperson or the "voice" (2) of the exploited-or-exploiters or polluted-or-polluters, including as a representative of disenfranchised environmental beings
Associated with problem-sets.
Matters of speech or song (2) may become scandalous or even criminalized.
Speaking, lecturing, singing performances may be associated with physical illness, injury, or discomfort
However Dhanapathi-2 in the bhagya 5th-from swakshetra predicts that one's intelligence will ultimately be recognized.
Currency speculation, food speculation, mani-money-lending, gambling upon the value of a hoard
One may eat, drink or smoke toxic substances which contribute to injury or disease
The values of the family lineage are indicated partially via the karaka functions of the dhanapathi.
-- BPHS, Ch. 24, shloka 18
"When Dhana's lord is in Ari Bhava along with a benefic, the native will gain wealth through his enemies."
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 = Budha in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 = Zukra in bhava-7
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava-7
dhanapathi-2 occupies the awkward 6/8 shad-ashtakya angle 8th-from-2nd
The concerns of yoking yoga yuvati-bhava-7 include the pairing-comparison-parity matters of balance, equity, marriage, alliance, contracts, agreements, matches, mating, equality, partnership and justice, inter alia
The ruler of bhava-2 mouth and speech is a verbalizer. Thus Dhanapathi-2 in 7 increases the verbosity of negotiations seeking equity, shared value
However 7 is stationed in the ashtakya 6/8 from dhanasthana-2. Speech may be impacted by the characteristics of the Dhanapathi-2. There is typically a pattern of discussing cintamani * mani * money and historic values (2) which are involved in disagreement, divorce, or unfair contracts (7 as 6th-from). Attorneys and advocates for exploited parties may benefit from this yoga.
If the Dhanapathi-2 is weakened, speech may be incomplete or clipped. If the Dhanapathi-2 is strengthened, bargaining on difficult (6) topics may be improved.
Agents of capitalization (2) enter the yuvati-bhava. Marriage is motivated by wealth-acquisition.
Wealth + knowledge obtained via the partner, terms of contract, various alliances and business partnerships.
Wealth = contained within conflicted, exploitive alliances = dhanakaraka
Shad-ashtakya angle Ruler of 8th-from-7 occupies 7; dhanapathi in 6th-from-2nd
Financial, genetic, and historical concerns of the family of origin (or other agents of the dominant lineage) are adversarial toward the first marriage, to the extent that the lineage values of the family of origin may overwhelm the will of the spouse. Indicator of a second marriage. The native may have wished to have married the second spouse earlier, but one may need to accomplish the first marriage before the desired mate can be obtained via the second marriage. Check conditions in 7th-from-Chandra (marriage-1) and 2nd-from-Chandra (marriage-2) before prognosticating.
Dhanapathi-2 in the adversarial, sick, contentious 6th-from-swakshetra .
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-8 * mysterious father
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-8 - conditions of death affect the mysterious family, the Mother
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-8
Dhanapathi-2 = Budha in bhava-8
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-8 * many transformations, much identity change
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-8 * long life
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 occupies the diplomatic, gracious, deal-making, accommodating 7th-from-swakshetra.
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 8
The face, eyes, hair, voice may serve with agency of upheaval and transformation
Stemming from a motivation within the family of origin (2), speech (2) may be camouflaged with false coverage. , the native fabricates information, embroiders the truth, substitutes various versions of the truth, or flat-out lies.
Hidden knowledge and wealth; secrets; transformative and catastrophic change; deep healing, surgery, tantra
Graha born into randhra bhava = subject to the fast spinning of the cycle (8) of self-destruction and rebirth (8).
Damages (8) the family lineage (2) unless Dhanapathi-2 is otherwise capable of resisting the sudden turnings of the cycle of death and rebirth which occur in the openings-aperture-sthana.
* especially severe churning of family lineage when dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 8 typically early upheavals to foundations of life
Separation from the family of origin, often for purpose of knowledge or treasury acquisition
The speed of change-of-form is often terrifying. Matters of the bhava-s ruled by graha in 8 are controlled by this fast-turning, re-cycling , identity-destroying and regenerating hidden life force.
Effects of graha in 8 are frightening, secretive, occult, mysterious, hidden, shocking magical, rejuvenating and changing-changing-changing.
Second marriage partner (2) may be "hidden" in some way. Possibility of one having two families, perhaps mutually unknown to each other.
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 7th-from-swakshetra = wealth is held by disguised, camouflaged silent, hidden partners
One capitalizes upon the basis of confidential information and secret dealings, including relationships with partners who are cooperate to hide money from taxation.
Ch. 24, Shloka 20
"If Dhana's lord is in Randhra Bhava,
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 9
father / religion / Priestly Ritual / Human Communication with world of Spirit
Dhanapathi-2 = Surya in bhava-9 * patronizing, doctrinal father
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Chandra in bhava-9 * doctrinal, philosophical, humanistic mother
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Mangala in bhava-9 * doctrinal brethren
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-9
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Guru in bhava-9 * doctrinal guides
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Zukra in bhava-9 * doctrinal sisters, wives, women
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-9 * doctrinal government, institution
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 8th-from-swakshetra = financially privileged (2) and knows (2) shocking secrets via a non-parochial, global philosophical worldview (9).
Yet through these treasures one may destroy an outdated identity (8th from) creating rebirth for oneself and for those following one's guidance (9)
An agent of social change, demonstrating transformative, taboo-breaking, revolutionary values (8th-from).
One capitalizes (2) upon the treasury of knowledge and jewels. Delivers lovely speech and song, upon the basis of the father, religious teachings, priesthood, and higher wisdom.
Narrative story-telling of sthana-2 enters the realm of philosophy, world travels, religion bhava-9. Talks about religion.
Ruler of Financial Wealth (2) resides in dharmabhava-9 may produce wealth from religious-doctrinal sources. However dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 occupies 8th-from-2nd suggesting that a sudden and unexpected transformation, often forceful, must accompany the regeneration (8) of wealth in a new form.
One's mother (Chandra) and indeed oneself may be a proselyte, priest, preacher or professor (9). However the sermon may be slightly awkward, unbalanced, too esoteric, or even revolutionary due to the parochial nature of Chandra quite awkward in the universal venue of 9, as well as Dhanapathi-2 in shocking, sudden-changes 8th-from home base:
Voice of Philosophical Truths
Family lineage and personal values articulated via a philosophical doctrine or catechesis
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-10
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-10
Dhanapathi-2 = Guru in bhava-10
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Zukra in bhava-10 * public reputation for values, language, treasuries, historical knowledge, arrangements, family lineage
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-10
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries borne into bhava- 10
profession / Leadership / Prestige / dignity
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 9th-from-swakshetra = financially privileged and wise
known for one's inventory of words
May be a splendid singer, speaker, or perhaps have renowned eyes
Dhanapathi-2 in 9th-from-swakshetra = capable leader with strong financial and aesthetic values who brings knowledge of cultural history and financial acumen to their leadership role.
If supportive planets in dhana bhava-2, the native may increase the financial-capital wealth of his society or tribe.
Serves the public through matters of money, collections of knowledge, and death
The family lineage may be a distinctive factor in one's public profile, reputation, and respect
Alternatively, one's public reputation may be strongly influence by a discourse of values (2) both moral and financial
One capitalizes upon the basis of career, government service, professional regulator, social rank, corporate leadership
Often speaks (2) in an authoritative fashion from a location of elite institutional governance (10)
Speaks to the government, and about the government
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Surya in bhava-11 = Karkata lagna
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Chandra in bhava-11 * Mithunaya lagna
Dhanapathi-2 = Mangala in bhava-11
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-11 * dhanayoga
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Guru in bhava-11 * dhana yoga
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Zukra in bhava-11 * significant dhanayoga
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-11 * lawful economic systems * dhanayoga
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in kendra 10h-from-swakshetra
a powerful dhana yoga
usually dhana-pathi in vriddhi-sthana = a combination for substantial accumulation of financial wealth
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 11
marketplace / networks / interconnected communities
Brings treasuries of valuable goods and conserved knowledge. Introduces significant capitalization power into the marketplace of goods and ideas.
The conserved, preserved, accumulated wealth of bhava-2 which arises from the family lineage, from the face-voice-eyes, and from knowledge of history and languages (2) is channeled into the marketplace (11) of ideas, goods and service, creating capital wealth for purpose of economic distribution.
Dhana yoga indicating wealth from bhava-2 resulting in marketplace gains, awards, rewards, and profits from work accomplished (11)
Face-hair-voice-eyes produce income
Family of origin, Lineage produces income
(Lineage) Knowledge of history and languages produces income
One capitalizes upon the basis of salary and other marketplace earnings, mass movements, social activism, huge gatherings, community donations, and marketplace connections including links throughout global Empire.
Also, wealth from elder sibling and father's commercial interests, and brother (11th = 3rd-from-9th).
Brings the treasuries of *value-2 * into the participatory social-economic networks-11
Dhanapathi-2 speech-knowledge treasuries born into bhava- 12
dreams / meditation / prayer / divinations / communication with spirit guides / sanctuary / subconscious / private ("bedroom") worlds
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Surya in bhava-12
Dhanapathi-2 = Chandra in bhava-12
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Mangala in bhava-12
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Budha in bhava-12
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Guru in bhava-12 * many meditations, much sanctuary
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 = Zukra in bhava-12
Dhanapathi-2 = Shani in bhava-12
dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 11th-from-swakshetra is gainful = financially privileged and withdrawn.
The identity of the family lineage may be somewhat invisible or perhaps fantasized. Whatever the lineage, the native is not beholden to its definitions and one may feel that the ancestors are dream figures.
Speech and truthfulness or historical fact are often obscured.
Material wealth may emerge from the imagination-12.
Can speak (2) to beings on the astral plane (12) and also in distant other-worlds (12)
The hoarded wealth has little power to sustain one's social identity or fleshly vitality
Efforts required to manage accumulated material wealth (2), although perhaps very beneficial to society, can drain (12) the life force vitality (1).
One may capitalize upon the basis of other-worldly knowledge, communication with spirits, imagination, visualization, meditation and prayer;
also, dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 12 can produce wealth from distant lands and invisible sources.
Importantly, dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in vyayasthana does not necessarily destroy the collected treasuries. Managing the financial well-being is perhaps tiring, but one may be born into wealth, acquire wealth, distribute wealth, and enjoy wealth with no restrictions.
Naturally, if Shani or Ketu occupy dhana-bhava there can be true poverty.
Otherwise, the activities of financial wealth-acquisition may continue unabated since dhanapathi-values-treasuries-2 in 11th from swakshetra creates a valid dhana-yoga .
financial well-being (2) from foreign lands, from enclosures,
from research and sanctuary spaces, meditative reflection
financial well-being (2) from enclosed or invisible (12) sources
talks about values and fleshdeath (2) with leaders of distant lands (12)
| "You can do this anytime you eat a meal. |
In this way, by relying on our teachers, our benefactors, and those in need, we gather the virtues of devotion, gratitude, and kindness."
file update: 17-Feb-2019
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