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Bhava * Amsha * Rashi

Guna


behavioral quality of the five elements : a peculiarity, attribute, characteristic, or property

An ingredient or constituent of Pra-kriti: Sattva * Rajasa * Tamasa

various philosophical systems have three, or 24, guna

Guna of the Nakshatra

wikipedia: Guna

disambiguation: Gana vs Guna Guna = three essential qualities of pra-kriti = being-ness = "tri-guna" = rajas, tamas, sattvas

Gana = three loka (levels, locations) of the psychic world = devya, manushya, raksashya

guna_1.jpg

from the H. Daniel Smith Collection of Indian Art at Syracuse University

from the Koeln Digital Sanskrit Lexicon

Gunam =

  • A single thread or strand of a cord or twine

  • A multiplier, co-efficient (in alg.); subdivision, species, kind

  • " reaching to all subordinate parts ", hence" valid throughout"

  • A quality, peculiarity, attribute or property

  • An attribute of the 5 elements (each of which has its own peculiar quality or qualities as well as organ of sense )


1. ether has zabda= sound for its Guna and the ear for its organ

2. the air has tangibility and sound for its Gunas and the skin for its organ

3. fire or light has shape or colour, tangibility, and sound for its Gunas, and the eyes for its organs

4. water has flavour, shape, tangibility, and sound for its Gunas, and the tongue for its organ

5. earth has the preceding Gunas, with the addition of its own peculiar Guna of smell, and the nose for its organ


An ingredient or constituent of Prakriti, chief quality of all existing beings , viz.

  • sattva, rajas , and tamas

i.e.

  • goodness, passion, and darkness,

  • or virtue, foulness, and ignorance

  • a property or characteristic of all created things


in Nyaya philosophy, twenty-four Gunas are enumerated, viz.

1. rUpa = shape, colour

2. rasa = savour

3. gandha = odour

4. sparza = tangibility

5. saMkhyA = number

6. parimANa = dimension

7. pRthaktv A = severalty

8. saMyoga = conjunction

9. vibhAga = disjunction

10. paratva = remoteness

11. Aparatva = proximity

12. gurutva = weight

13. dravatva = fluidity

14. sneha = viscidity

15. zabda = sound

16. buddhi or jJAna = understanding or knowledge

17. sukha = pleasure

18. duHkha = pain

19. icchA = desire

20. dveSa = aversion

21. prayatna = effort

22. dharma = merit or virtue

23. Adharma = demerit

24. saMskAra = the self-reproductive quality

Sattva

"being, existence, entity, reality

  • true essence, nature, disposition of mind, character

  • spiritual essence, spirit, mind

  • vital breath, life, consciousness,

  • strength of character, strength, firmness, energy, resolution,

  • courage, self-command, good sense, wisdom, magnanimity

  • the quality of purity or goodness

    • (regarded in the Samkhya phil. as the highest of the three Gunas or constituents of Prakriti because it renders a person true, honest, wise &c., and a thing pure, clean.)

    material or elementary substance, entity, matter, a thing

  • m. n. a living or sentient being, creature, animal, embryo, fetus, rudiment of life

  • a ghost, demon, goblin, monster"

Rajasa

" coloured or dim space"

  • the sphere of vapour or mist, region of clouds, atmosphere, air, firmament (in Veda one of the divisions of

  • the world and distinguished from div} or svar})

  • "the sphere of light"... the whole expanse of heaven or sky", divided into a lower and upper stratum ...

  • vapour, mist, clouds, gloom, dimness, darkness

  • impurity, dirt, dust, any small particle of matter; the dust or pollen of flowers

  • cultivated or ploughed land (as "dusty" or"dirty"), arable land, fields

  • the impurity i.e. the menstrual discharge of a woman

  • the"darkening" quality, passion, emotion, affection

  • tin

  • autumn

  • sperm

  • safflower

  • rajasa = unclean, dusty, dark

  • living in the dark

  • the menstrual excretion

  • endowed with or influenced by the quality of passion, passionate"

Tamas

compare to Latin timira (frightened) temere}

"darkness, gloom

  • " led into darkness "

  • deprived of the eye's light or sight

  • the darkness of hell, hell or a particular division of hell

  • the obscuration of the sun or moon in eclipses, attributed to Rahu

mental darkness, ignorance , illusion, error

  • in Samkhya phil. one of the 5 forms of a-vidjA

  • one of the 3 qualities or constituents of everything in creation

  • the cause of heaviness, ignorance, illusion, lust, anger, pride, sorrow, dullness, and stolidity

  • sin; sorrow"

tamas that dull feeling, as if you'd just been buried in the earth (Pema Chodron)
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